Prostheses:

Leg prosthesis

1.What are they?


Prosthetic devices (prosthesis) – an artificial substitute for a missing body part (limbs, teeth etc.). which replaces that part allowing to restore more or less function of the body or just for cosmetics.

Prosthesis are usually made of a light but durable materials such as wood, aluminium or even plastic. Lightness of a prosthesis increases comfort of use. There are a lot of mechanisms in, for example, an artificial leg enabling it to imitate the movement of a real leg the best it can. Prosthesis aren’t powered by any batteries or others sources of energy. Force required to move an artificial limb comes from human muscles.

Let’s go over some of the advantages and disadvantages of prosthetic devices:

Advantages:

  • can restore function missing due to a lost body part
  • less energy usage
  • boost confidence of a damaged person

Disadvantages:

  • it takes a long time to learn how to use an artificial limb
  • prosthesis are really expensive
  • Skin irritation and uncomfortable feeling at the beginning

2.Where are they used?


Types of prosthesis:  legs, arms, joints, cosmetic prosthesis (teeth, toes, breasts etc.) prosthesis for animals (e.g dolphin’s tail, dog’s legs prosthesis)


Artificial organs:


1.What are they?

Artificial organs – articial device implanted into a human to replace all or part of an organ.

Artificial organs must be made from very specific types of materials that are compatible with blood and tissue. Interal organs are very complex so it’s very difficult to fully imitate the organ’s function. Artificial organs often use diffrent mechanisms then real organs to achive the same effect. Even thought the organs are very hard to replace with artificial ones, sometimes it’s the best option for the patient’s health. They are also used as a short-term soultion for patients awaiting for a human organ transplant.

Advantages and disadvantages of artificial organs:

Advantages:

  • by replacing the damaged organ they can improve quality of patient’s life or even save patient’s life
  • they can be produced in sufficient quantities to help patients(unlike natural organs)
  • they eliminate the possibility of transferring infections (e.g HIV),

Disadvantages:

  • inability to adapt to growth or regenerate
  • the cost of creating an artficial organ is very high which limit availability of these organs to the general public
  • high possiblilty of organ rejection

 


2.Where are they used?


Types of artificial organs: bladder, neurostimulators, heart, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas, trachea

Intresting fact: Scientists are working on development of organs produced from stem cells. Stem cell organs transplatation would completly rule out the risk of rejection which is a serious problem with artificial organs. They have already made mini-organs which are being tested on animals.

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